Fund Execs Wrestle With Fair Value Pricing: Accuracy, Disclosure Among Chief Concerns
September 26, 2005
CHICAGO - Despite the wave of technological advancements and outsourcing expertise in recent years, fair value pricing remains a tough nut to crack, according to mutual fund industry leaders attending the annual Investment Company Institute Tax & Accounting Conference held here last week.
In this day of heightened regulatory scrutiny, fair value pricing - the term for calculating the net asset value of a fund when the price of its underlying securities may not be readily available - has emerged as a key deterrent to market timers, who take advantage of stale prices to arbitrage mutual fund shares. If, for example, a significant world event were to occur before a fund's fair value could be re-calculated, a market timer could buy or sell off shares to the detriment of everyday investors.
So when the Securities and Exchange Commission ordered mutual fund complexes to install a chief compliance officer last year, it also suggested that firms take stock how they calculate fair value and how often they review the quality of that process.
As such, fair value pricing has also emerged as a dangerous pitfall for fund accountants and, ultimately, fund CCOs. Any slight slip up or momentary lapse of focus - by either the fund itself or its pricing service - could raise red flags at the SEC and risk the chance of a costly, regulatory nightmare.
But as much progress as has been made in ensuring accurate fair value pricing, said Alexander Ramos, vice president of fund accounting at The Bank of New York, it's surprising how many money managers aren't taking advantage of that information frequently enough.
"I think, for the most part, folks are relying definitely on the reporting they'll get from fair value vendors and a lot of that is quarterly," said Ramos, whose group accounts for more than $100 billion in assets. "Whether or not people can do more than just quarterly, which coincides with board meetings for the most part, is a bit of an open question, [but] folks certainly have the means to look at information the day after a fair value event. It's simple enough as pulling information off your accounting system or perhaps pulling prices off of Bloomberg.
"Some people might be hesitant to look at the data because they're afraid of what they might find, but I think that's the idea," Ramos continued. "You should be looking at your prices more frequently than the quarterly reporting that you may be doing right now."
Question the Numbers
Quality checks, however, are about more than just crunching a few numbers, added Richard J. Thomas, senior vice president and treasurer at Federated Investors, a $205 billion money manager in Pittsburgh. When the fund scandal pushed the topic of fair value pricing to the forefront two years ago, Thomas recalled, fund firms were scrambling to determine how they might install some sort of internal process for calculating fair value. Now that two major service providers have taken over pricing, however, firms could be running the risk of paying too little attention to the figures these vendors provide.
"We should be looking for trends," said Thomas, who characterized himself as "skeptical" of the current process for calculating fair value pricing. "We're working off only a year, or a year and a half of data, [so] at the end of the day, your portfolio manager should be looking at the prices from their standpoint of reasonability. They're the experts in the market and know what's going on in their markets, and if they feel they need to challenge these prices they should. But I think there is still a lot of work to do in analyzing this."
Thomas suggests that funds assign a representative to the pricing service vendor to review exactly how the vendor arrives at their calculation.
"We do that with all of the other pricing services, so I think we should approach this in the same manner," he said.
Mark Osterheld, the assistant treasurer at Boston-based Fidelity Investments, agrees. He said the industry has generally moved from the tendency of taking a pricing feed and not pricing the fund beyond that to now receiving the fair value price and not thinking beyond that figure.
"And neither answer is a good answer from our perspective," he remarked.
That's why Fidelity, encourages its people to evaluate the information they're receiving. Not just in terms of fair value pricing, either, but information received from general pricing services, as well.